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Lombardy

Lombardy ( Latin: Langobardia ) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy.
9 million, a sixth of all citizens in Italy live in Lombardy, which makes the region the most populous in Italy.
About one quarter of the gross domestic product of Italy is produced here.
Languages ​​spoken in the region is Italian, vestlombardisk and austlombardisk.

Lombardy bordered on the north by Switzerland to the west of Piedmont, in the south of Emilia – Romagna and in the north to the Veneto and Trentino – Alto Adige.
Alps dominate the northern areas of the region, while Posletta and the river Po predominate in the south. Of the major tributaries of the Po in Lombardy find an Adda, Agogna, Chiese, Oglio, Olona, Scrivia, Serio and Ticino

Several major mountain ranges of the Alps located in Lombardy, which Brenta massif, they bergamaskiske Alps and Vizentine – alpane
Lake Como located north of the region is the third largest in the country and one of the deepest in Europe with a depth of around 400 meters. Lago Maggiore, which is the second largest in the country lies on the border between Lombardy, Piedmont and Switzerland. Other lakes in the region include Lake Lugano near the border to Switzerland and Lake Idro.

The area has been inhabited since at least 1000 century BC., as archaeological findings have shown. The next centuries were Lombardy residents of some of the first Etruscan tribes, who founded the city of Mantua and spread the art of writing. From 400 century BC. the area was invaded by keltarar ( gallarar ). These people founded several cities ( like Milan ) and extended his realm Adriatic coast. Their development ceased when the Romans invaded Posletta from 200 century BC. and after several centuries of war was the area in 194 BC. the Roman province of Gallia Cisalpina. The Roman culture and language overwhelmed the former civilization the following years, and Lombardy became one of the most developed and rich areas in Italy where it was built many roads and agriculture and trade was developed. Important people as Pliny the Elder ( in Como ) and Virgil ( in Mantua ) were born here. Late in ancient Lombardy played an important strategic role as capital of the Western Roman Empire was moved to Milan. In 313 it was here that Emperor Constantine published the famous edict that gave religious freedom to all in the kingdom.

During and after the Western Roman Empire ‘s fall rented Lombardy great many of the devastation that a number of barbarian invasions brought with it. The latest and most effective came from langobardarane (or lombardarar ) who came around 570 century. [ 1] and they ruled here long from hovudsaden Pavia and is the origin of the current name of the region. There was a close relationship between the Frankish, Bavarian and lanogbardiske nobility for centuries.

Having fought against each other at first improved relationship between Langbarden and latinsktalande the people themselves. Finally melted the Lombard language and culture together with the Latin culture, as can be seen in many names and laws. The end of the Lombard Board came in 774 when the Frankish king Charlemagne conquered Pavia and annexed the ” Kingdom of Italy ” ( mainly the northern and central Italy ) to his kingdom. The former Lombard dukes and nobles were erstta by other German vassals, fyrstbiskopar and markgrever. Nevertheless derive the majority population in the area from langobardarane.

On the 1000 century the region economic growth due to increased trade and better farming conditions. In a similar way as in other areas of Italy, this led to increased self- feeling in the cities, and because of the increasing affluence of their enabled them to resist the traditional feudal power, represented by the German emperors and the local legacies theirs. This process reached the climax of the 1100 – and 1200 – century, when different Lombard unions formed alliances between cities of Lombardy, mainly driven from Milan, and managed to turn the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick I at Legnano, and his grandson Frederick II in Parma. This prevented not second important Lombard towns, who Cremona ( which then was as big and rich as Milan ) and others, from supporting the emperor if this could give them a short-term gain. By using the advantage of the flourishing agriculture around Po, together with Venice and Tuscany, were industry and trade expanded until it became the economic center for all of Europe. Traders in Lombardy ran the trading and banking activity far north in Northern Europe and the name ” Lombardy ” was eventually used on the entire northern Italy until the 1400s.

From the 1300s onwards led constant inner and outer contentions that it was established adelege seignoriar. The most important of these were house Visconti ( later Sforza ) in Milan and Gonzaga family in Mantua. In 1400 they were the Duchy of Milan a major political, economic and military power in Europe. Milan and Mantua became two center in the Renaissance, where the culture with men like Leonardo da Vinci and Mantegna and art works were set specific high ( as ” The Last Supper ” by Leonardo Da Vinci). Wealth emphasized rather to himself the more organized armies of nations like France and Austria, who led a long war of Lombadia late 1400 – century and the early 1500s. After the decisive Battle of Pavia in 1525 came Duchy of Milan under Austria, who went on to the royal Austrian Habsburgs in Spain. The new rulers did to improve the economic situation in Lombardy and introduced instead a number of taxes to support the endless number of wars which resulted in Europe. The eastern part of what today is Lombardy, with towns like Bergamo and Brescia, was part of the Venetian Republic, which began to gain more power in the area from the 1300s.

Pest ( as in 1648, described by Alessandro Manzoni I Promessi Sposi work ) and the general downward secondary conditions in Italy ‘s economy in 1600 – and 1700s prevented further development of Lombardy. In 1706 came east erika usurp power and introduced economic and social measures that improved the conditions to some extent. By the late 1700s however, the area was conquered by France under Napoleon and Lombardy became a partially autonomous province of the Napoleonic Empire.

With Napoelon his fall came area back to Austria in 1815 in the form of a puppet state called Kingdom of Lombardy – Venetia. No one had to fight the other hand, new social ideals introduced in napelonstida. Lombardy became one of the intellectual centers in the process that led to the unification of Italy. The popular republic from 1848 was short-lived and Lombardy was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1859 as a result of the Second Italian War of Independence. From the late 1800s, and with the recovery after World War II, confirmed Lombardy region had the status as the most economically developed area in Italy.

Source: Wikipedia
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